Types Of Plants In Wetlands

Wetland plants are known as hydrophytic vegetation or hydrophytes, and there are several types of plants in wetlands. They grow in water logged areas because of their high need of water for survival.

Wetland plants are the basis for the food chain as they are the main food for smaller animal species. So, their presence is very vital for the proper function of the food chain. A lot of beaver as well as waterfowl species and muskrats consume the tubers or seeds of different types of plants in wetlands.

These plants become part of the food chain process as detritus (plant particles that arise as a result of the decomposition and breakdown of bigger plants. These plants are further taken as food by other organisms, including wildlife and fish.

Different organisms equally make use of plants as habitat or cover. The different types of plants in wetlands also help to improve water quality by taking away some toxins and other nutrients from the water. Furthermore, the different types of plants in wetlands can stabilize soils and lessen peak flood.

A clear understanding of hydrophytes will help in the understanding of wetland structure and ecology. It will equally help you to identify different types of wetlands. The different types of plants in wetlands can be grouped into these categories:

Emergent Hydrophytic Plants

These types of plants in wetlands have their roots based in the soils but the reproductive organs, stems, and leaves are shallow. Very good examples of emergent hydrophytes are rushes and cattails.

Submerged Hydrophytic Plants

These ones are fund entirely under the water and they hardly bring out their shoot at the surface of the water. Almost of them are rooted deep inside the substrate and they take up carbon dioxide and submerged oxygen from water for their growth and survival.

Scrub – Hydrophytic Plants

These types of plants in wetlands have their roots in the soil. They have certain growing similarities with their submerged counterparts but grow taller (about 20 feet) and have woody stems. They might be small trees or true scrubs. Some examples of these types of plants in wetlands include alder and buttonbush.

Floating leaved Hydrophytic Plants

As their name imply, these types of plants in wetlands have their leaves floating on the surface of the water as their roots grow from the substrate. The leaves are connected through the stems, and are either circular or oval in shape.

Other examples of plants in wetlands include:

* Viola cucullata

* Typha latifolia

* Typha angustifolia

* Tsuga canadensis

* Thuja occidentalis

* Taxodium distichum

* Taxodium ascendens

* Symplocarpus foetidus

* Sparganium eurycarpum

* Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani

* Saururus cernus

* Salix spp. (Willow)

* Sagittaria latifolia

* Rosa palustris

* Pontederia cordata

* Polygonum spp.

* Pinus strobus

* Picea mariana

* Peltandra virginica

* Osmunda regalis

* Osmunda claytonia

* Osmunda cinnamomea

* Onoclea sensibilis

* Nyssa sylvatica

* Lythrum salicaria

* Lindera benzoin

* Larix laricina

* Juncus effusus

* Iris versicolor

* Impatiens capensis

* Ilex mucronata

* Equisetum fluviatile

* Eleocharis palustris

* Decodon verticillatus

* Cephalanthus occidentalis

* Carex stricta

* Boehemeria cylindrica

* Arisaema triphyllum

* Alnus spp.

* Acorus calamus

* Acer rubrum