What are the different types of antibiotics? Antibiotics, from the words “anti” and “bios”, are medicine that we can take that kills bacteria. Anti is the Greek word for against and bios means life. There are many different types of antibiotics as there are also many different types of illnesses. Their main goal is to ensure that bacteria get killed or at the least, slow their growth. It is important that you get to know the many different types of antibiotics so that you will know what to take when you experience such infections.
The first of many types of antibiotics are beta-lactams. These antibiotics work by binding to the enzymes that stop the production of bacteria in the cell walls of the body. The many known medicines that are considered beta-lactams include penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems and monobactams. Penicillins, as we all know, are the oldest types of antibiotics. They can treat a lot of different illnesses and infections such as those of the skin, teeth, ear, gonorrhea, urinary tract, and respiratory tract. Cephalosporins are much like the penicillin in structure. Among all the types of antibiotics, they are the most diverse as they can treat quite a number of infections such as pneumonia, staph infections, strep throat, bronchitis, tonsillitis, and many others.
The second types of antibiotics are macrolides. They bind with bacterial ribosomes to be able to inhibit protein synthesis. Most of the time, macrolides are used to combat lung penetrations, respiratory tract infections, gastrointestinal tract infections, skin infections, and genital infections. However, this type of antibiotics has side effects such as vomiting, nausea, and sometimes even diarrhea. There are some of the macrolide antibiotics that can bring about allergic reactions, too. Therefore, it is important that you always consult with your doctor before taking any of these.
The third types of antibiotics are Fluoroquinolones. These are known to be the newest class and type of antibiotics that are usually used to treat urinary tract infections. Unlike the two other types, the Fluoroquinolones control the bacteria by meddling with the ability of the bacteria to make DNA – therefore, stopping them from multiplying. Other types of infections that are treated by Fluoroquinolones are respiratory infections (specifically sinusitis and bronchitis) and skin infections.
Another of the many types of antibiotics is Tetracyclines. Much like the other types, the Tetracyclines fight bacteria by inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis. This is mostly used to treat infections such as sinuses, urinary tract infections, intestine infections, skin infections, gonorrhea, lyme disease, typhus, and many others. Like any other antibiotics, taking too much Tetracyclines can also cause side effects. They can cause severe damage to the kidneys, burning of the stomach, sore mouth and even sore tongue.
Lastly, we have the Aminoglycosides. These are the antibiotics that are used to combat bacteria that the beta lactams cannot. They are the ones that stop the bacteria from making proteins – therefore stopping the spread of the disease. The main side effects of the Aminoglycosides antibiotics include ear problems and hearing problems. However, much like any other medicine, they also cause kidney damage in the long run.