There are various types of government parties in different countries, which compete to exercise political power in their nation. It is believed that in the 19th century, with the parliamentary systems in Europe and the United States, various types of government parties originated in a modern manner. Political party is a group of people that contest to gain political power, either in a system of democratic elections or via revolution.
Different countries have different systems of political parties. They may range from a single party system to a multi- party system.
SINGLE PARTY SYSTEM
This system is followed where a single party holds power. Even if there are smaller parties, they are allowed to function only if they acquiesce to the rule of the dominant party. Mostly, such a party system is linked with dictatorships. Though there is no existence of opposition parties, but if such a party system exists in a democracy, it means that there is no scope for the opposition parties to come in power.
TWO PARTY SYSTEM
In such types of government parties system, there are two dominant political parties (right wing coalition and left wing coalition), which leave no scope for other parties to come to power. A well- known example is the US Congress.
MULTI- PARTY SYSTEM
In this kind of party system, there are two dominant parties as well as some minor parties that gain representation. In many cases, the smaller parties work in coalition with the larger parties. Example- India, Ireland, Australia and the U.K.
The various types of government parties are defined below.
With its principles derived from the Communist Manifesto written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in 1848, this party is associated with the proletariat (the working class). The policies of this party support the application of the social as well as the economic principles of communism via state policies. The Chinese Communist Party is the largest political party globally.
Many countries around the globe have parties named ‘Socialist Party’. Every nation has its own interpretation of socialism and that interpretation is upheld by the socialist political party of that country. Many such parties have relations with the labor and trade unions too.
In the case of the liberal party too, the naming is a category of political parties which is found in many countries around the world. A liberal party can be further categorized as center left, centrist or center right. Another classification is based on their adherence to social liberalism or classical liberalism. Their main objective is the implementation of civil rights as well as democratic institutions.
Conservative parties refer to the right wing political parties that advocate the continuation of traditional institutions in society. Some conservatives believe in maintaining the status quo, while others seek to work to return to the way things were in the past. What becomes conservative is wholly subjective, depending on the time and place where the party is located.
There are other types of government parties that do not come under any one particular category, but are formed by the combination of principles derived from the above described types of government parties.