What are the different types of cells? Cells are the most basic unit that comprises all living things. They are structural and functional as well. Basically, the cells are the smallest life units. As small as they are, they are considered as living things. There are many different types of cells. The two most common types of cells are the prokaryotic cells and the eukaryotic cells.
The prokaryotic cells are the simplest types of cells. These are the very first cells produced on earth. These are the cells that contain a so called cell membrane. The other components that form a cell are the cytoplasm, ribosomes, and the nucleoid. The cell membranes are what surround the cells. Cytoplasm, on the other hand, is where the process of cell metabolism happens. Ribosomes are the parts of the cells that make proteins, and the nucleoids are the molecules that allow genetic information to be held. These types of cells are equipped with rigid cell walls. These are then used to protect the cell. Also, these types of cells are ones that are composed of but one cells.
Prokaryotic cells are known to be asexual. Asexual is a term used to describe being able to reproduce without the need of a partner. These types of cells reproduce through binary fission. Here, the types of cells split in half when it finishes copying itself. Therefore, the offspring of these cells are identical to their parents. The most common examples of the prokaryotic types of cells are bacteria. They are the living things that only existed when the earth started to form.
Eukaryotic cells, on the other hand, are more complex types of cells. These cells are composed of cytoplasm, ribosomes, DNA, and cell membranes – much like the prokaryotic cells. However, eukaryotic cells have a nucleus, nucleolus, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, vesicles, and many others. The nucleus is the part of the cell that houses DNA. The nucleolus is where the ribosomes are made. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is the part of the cell that makes lipids, while the Golgi apparatus is the one who sorts and exports the cell protein. Mitochondria create energy. The cytoskeleton is the part that transports information. And lastly, the vesicles are the ones who move the proteins around the cells. There are some other eukaryotic cells that have lysosomes. These are the parts that digest the waste. There are some that have vacuoles, which stores water and other liquid. There are also cell walls that surround the eukaryotic cells for protection.
Unlike the prokaryotic cells which are unicellular, the eukaryotic cells are multicellular. This means that they are composed of many different types of cells. When differentiation takes place, the cells are able to take on different jobs and characteristics. These then allows the eukaryotic cells to multiply. Eukaryotic cells can be asexual as they can also need sexual reproduction. Depending on the organism, there are different ways to create and procreate. The genes of the parents are also mixed with others which then end up in new and more favorable organisms.