What are the types of ecosystems? Ecosystems can be classified as either terrestrial ecosystem or aquatic ecosystems. It all depends on what is found in these types of ecosystems. In fact, the name clearly defines the nature of these types of ecosystem.
These types of ecosystems encompass all types of both living and non-living organisms found in water. Under aquatic ecosystem, there is the fresh water and marine ecosystem.
The word marine refers to sea water and all plants and animals which are found in the seas. Marine ecosystems are the largest on the earth’s surface. In fact it covers a bout 3_4 of the earth’s surface. These types of ecosystems are referred to as marine since they contain large amounts of dissolved minerals and hence referred to as salty water.
This ecosystem varies from region to region and thus every region has its own characteristics. For instance the depth below the sea bed. This affects the distribution of members of the marine ecosystem. Depending on some distinctive features, these types of ecosystem can be categorised as profundal ecosystem which refers to the deeper sections, the ocean ecosystem which refer to the shallow sections, coral reefs, salt marshes, hydrothermal vents. Estuaries, benthic bottom substrates and inter-tidal ecosystems.
Fresh water ecosystems
The fresh water ecosystem divided into lentic which refers to till or slow moving water such as ponds, lotic which refers to fast moving water e.g. rivers and wetland ecosystems. All the three types of fresh water ecosystems have their habitats. These are the smallest types of ecosystems.
These types of ecosystems can be categorized as grassland, mountain, desert and forest ecosystem with each having its own distinguishing factors.
These types of ecosystems can be classified as savannah which is found on the tropical part and the prairies which are found on the temperate grassland. It consists of mainly grass and some few tree and shrubs besides being a habitat for other animals such as the zebras.
These types of ecosystems are found in mountainous regions. It’s one habitat with a variety of both living and non-living organisms. This is due to the change in climatic conditions as one goes up the mountain.
These are characterized with low amounts of rainfall and high temperatures. It has few plants and animals. Plants in these types of ecosystems have special features which helps them to conserve much water.
This types of ecosystems favours life of very many living organism and thus there’s a wide variety of plants and animals thereby being densely populated.
It is also divided into:
Tropical evergreen forest – Mostly receive high rainfall and has tall trees with little vegetation
Temperate evergreen forest – It receives rain but not as much as tropical evergreen forests.
Tropical deciduous forest – Consist of mainly bushes and shrubs.
Taiga – found around arctic regions. Has very low temperatures; below zero for the better part of the year.
Temperate deciduous forest – Receives sufficient rainfall with a clear distinction between summer and winter. Trees found in this ecosystem shed their leaves during summer.
All the above mentioned types of ecosystem forms habitat for different types of living organism and this makes each ecosystem to be very unique.