The different types of vaccines get formed using several diverse procedures. They may consist of attenuated live viruses, inactivated viruses, stationary toxins or merely segmented pathogens. The classification of various types of vaccines could be formulated on the basis of different development processes that are required for the formation of those vaccines.
These are also called as attenuated vaccines. It is possible to produce attenuated vaccines using different methods. Transferring the infection-causing virus through the groups of cells or animal origins is one common method that helps in the formation of vaccines. The types of vaccines could get altered on the basis of frequency of disease that can have mild, moderate, dangerous or serious effect on health. After supplying the dosages of resulting vaccine virus to the human body, it will be incapable for replicating sufficiently in order to cause sickness, however it will be helpful in provoking the response from immune that can guard against potential diseases. A long-lasting effect in protection from attenuated vaccine could be achieved after introducing it with the killed vaccine or inactivated vaccine.
These are also called as inactivated vaccine. This type of vaccine works as an option to the attenuated vaccine. Amongst all other types of vaccine, killed vaccines are more effective. An inactivation of a pathogen is done in killed vaccines. This inactivation process gets carried out using high temperature or compounds such as formalin or formaldehyde. Due to this the ability of pathogen to replicate gets destroyed. However it keeps it unbroken by which the immune system can identify it.
Since the replication ability of pathogens gets blocked in case of killed or inactivated vaccines, they can not come back in more dangerous forms that can cause diseases. As compared to other types of vaccines, killed vaccines tend to provide a small level of protection. Also, they need vaccinations in order to produce long-term protection. Some bacterial viruses are not completely produced from the bacterium itself; however toxins are also responsible for the production of these kinds of bacterial diseases.
Subunit and Conjugate Vaccines:
These both types of vaccines merely control some parts of pathogens they guard against.
In order to aggravate a reaction from the immune system subunit vaccines make use of few parts of targeted pathogen. This process gets carried out stepwise. The first step involves isolation of the explicit protein type of a pathogen, whereas another step involves presentation of an antigen on its own. The examples of subunit vaccines are the influenza vaccine and acellular pertussis. Also, there are few more types of subunit vaccines that can get produced through inherent engineering.
Conjugate vaccines and recombinant vaccines are similar in nature. Both these types of vaccines are produced after combining the two separate components or chemicals. However, conjugate vaccines get produced from the parts of coats of bacteria. These coats and carrier proteins get linked together chemically and then this combination is used for the production of a vaccine. Conjugate vaccines show extra influential and joint immune response.