In the field of genetics, DNAs and different types of RNA are important to study and understand when it comes to studying and getting an idea of our genetic makeup.Without studying either, it would be difficult to do so and this is why scientists are now also looking into various types of RNA.
While the DNA consists of genetic instructions, RNAs are responsible for the synthesis of protein and also for transmitting genetic information in our systems.This is applicable to all types of RNA.
RNA is the abbreviation for ribonucleic acid and its main task involves the transference of the need of the genetic code from the nucleus and into the ribosome itself in order to facilitate protein synthesis.
This way what happens is that the DNA is not affected or damaged by other processes going on inside the body and protein synthesis is made possible. Without any of the various types of RNA it would be impossible for protein to be synthesized or made at all.
The first of the many types of RNA is the messenger RNA which is responsible for transmitting the message that the DNA is in need of protein for protein synthesis to take place. These types of RNA (referred to as mRNA) are made of protein themselves and are responsible for transmitting information from the DNA to the RNA where protein synthesis takes place. Those types of RNA where protein synthesis takes place are known as Ribosomal RNA. These come together and are able to read the information provided by mRNA and any message sent by the mRNA is translated into proteins that are used for protein synthesis. Then you’ve got the tRNA which is responsible for the absorption of the amino acid that is required for the process of protein synthesis.
The 3 types of RNA mentioned above, as can be seen, are responsible for protein synthesis which is essential for the DNA itself.
Without this function the DNA could be damaged or its formation could be affected which would have adverse effects upon the genetic makeup and thus the person within whom the DNA is damaged. If the various types of RNA did not exist, protein synthesis would be impossible and without this, the DNA would be unable to survive. So, the DNA and the various types of RNA go hand in hand.
What happens when a virus such as AIDS enters the body is that it could affect the genetic makeup by copying its own DNA into the RNA and thus invading the RNA.
The RNA is no longer doing what it is supposed to do and by providing the virus with protein, it enables it to spread throughout the system and affect the DNA. This is also why it is suggested that women with AIDS should not get pregnant or reproduce- because the genetic makeup of the child could be affected and even the child would be affected by the virus itself since one of the two parents is carrying it in their bodies.