What are the different types of pumps? Pumps are devices that are used to move liquids or gasses by a certain mechanical action. There are three major groups of pumps and two major types of pumps. The major groups are defined basing on how they move the liquid or the gas. These groups are displacement, gravity, and direct lift. Pumps need the help of electricity so they can function well. But there are quite a lot of energy sources that it can use such as wind, engine, manual, and electricity.
The first of the two main types of pumps are the centrifugal pumps or the roto-dynamic ones. These pumps work by producing a flow by incrementing the value of velocity in the liquid. This is done by the use of an impeller – a rotating vane in specific. The centrifugal pumps are sub classified into many different types of pumps. There are submersible, vertical multistage, in-line, end suction, horizontal multistage, self-primping, regenerative, and axial flow. These types define how exactly the centrifugal types of pumps work. For instance, the end suction pumps work by sucking from the edge.
The second types of pumps are the positive displacement pumps. These are the pumps that work by interchanging filling of the cavity as well as displacing the given liquid volume. The good thing about these types of pumps is that it equally and constantly delivers the liquid volume as the pressure works. Unlike the centrifugal pumps, these types of pumps are only classified into 4 main types. The first one is the reciprocating pumps, or pumps that have plunger, piston and diaphragm, rotary pumps, or pumps that are consisted of gear, screw, vane, lobe, and regenerative cavity and progressive cavity, steam pumps, and power pumps.
But how can one choose which of the two types of pumps to use? You see, it’s really not that easy to choose between the two. There are factors that should be considered. First, you have to think of the flow rate as well as the pressure head of the types of pumps. The flow of centrifugal pumps varies depending on the head or the pressure of the system. The positive displacement pumps, on the other hand, have a more constant flow than the latter. This is mainly because they are proven to give out more pressure than the centrifugal pumps. Therefore, depending on your need, you can easily choose which of the two types of pumps to use. Always remember that you should also consider the viscosity and capacity of the pumps. When it comes to centrifugal pumps, when the viscosity is increased the flow gets reduced. On the other hand, with positive displacement pumps, when the viscosity is increased, the flow of the liquid or gas is also increased. Third, you should consider the mechanical efficiency. When you are charging the pressure of the system in positive displacement pumps, the flow doesn’t get affected. When it comes to the centrifugal pumps, the flow experiences a dramatic effect when the pressure or head is changed.