There are several types of geology jobs. Geoscientists collect and deduce data about the earth and other planets. They help us understand the processes of earth and improve the quality of our lives. The geosciences are broad and diverse fields and hence their career paths vary widely. The National Science Foundation considers the following as major geoscience disciplines: geology, oceanography, marine science, geophysics, hydrology, meteorology, environmental science, atmospheric science, planetary science and soil science.
The common types of geology jobs are:
Atmospheric scientists: These types of geology jobs would study the weather processes, solar radiation, the global dynamics of climate and its effects and the role of atmospheric chemistry in pollution, ozone depletion and climate change.
Economic geologists: These are the types of geology jobs would explore and build up metallic and non-metallic resources. Also, they would study the mineral deposits and would identify environmentally safer ways for disposing the waste materials from mining activities.
Engineering geologists: The engineering geologists would apply geological principles, data and techniques to the study of rock and soil surface materials along with ground water. They look into the geologic factors that affect structures such as airports, bridges, dams and buildings.
Environmental geologists: They study the interaction between geosphere, atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere and human actions. They work to resolve problems connected with urbanization, pollution, waste management and natural hazards such as erosion, flooding, etc.
Geochemists: These people would use inorganic and physical chemistry to explore the characteristics and distribution of major and minor elements that are present in ground water and surface materials. They make use of organic chemistry in order to investigate the composition of fossil fuel deposits.
Geochronologists: They would determine the age of rocks using the rates of decay of certain radioactive elements present in them which in turn help them determine the time scale for events of history of the earth.
Geologists: This is one among the types of geology jobs that would study the materials, physical nature, processes, products and history of the earth.
Geomorphologists: They study earth’s landscapes and landforms in relation with geologic as well as climatic processes along with human activities which form them.
Geophysicists: These would be applying the principles of physics for studying the earth’s interior and for investigating earth’s magnetic, electric and gravitational fields.
Glacial geologists: The glacial geologists would study the movement and physical properties of ice sheets and glaciers.
Hydrogeologists: They would study the occurrence, movement, distribution and abundance along with quality of sub-surface waters and the geologic aspects of these surface waters.
Marine geologists: They would investigate the ocean-floor and ocean-continent boundaries, continental shelves, ocean basins and coastal areas on the continental borders.
Meteorologists: These people would study the atmosphere and atmospheric phenomenon, as well as the weather.
Mineralogists: They would study mineral formation, properties and composition.
Oceanographers: They would investigate the chemical, biological, physical as well as geologic dynamics of oceans.
Petroleum geologists: These geologists are specialized in exploration and production of natural gas and oil resources.
Planetary geologists: They would study various planets and their respective moons just for understanding the evolution of the entire solar system.
Sedimentologists: They study the origin, nature, distribution and alteration of sediments such as mud, silt and sand.
Seismologists: They would study earthquakes and analyze the behavior of the earthquake waves to understand the structure of the earth.
Soil scientists: They study soils and their properties to find out how to maintain agricultural productivity and to detect and remediate contaminated soils.
Structural geologists: They analyze earth’s forces by studying fracturing, deformation and folding of the earth’s crust.
Volcanologists: They explore volcanoes and volcanic phenomena to understand them and to predict eruptions.