What are the different types of disability? Disability can be defined as impairments or limitations. They are characterized by not being able to perform body functions normally, having difficulty in doing a certain task, and having problems in performing life situations. The term disability is actually quite a broad term, but there are types of disability that can narrow down the term. Here are the main types of disability that can clarify it.
The first of many types of disability that will be discussed is developmental disability. These are disabilities that are characterized by growth and development mental and physical impairment. Some of the known developmental disabilities include autism, Asperger’s syndrome, Down syndrome, and dyslexia. You see, these are disabilities that hinder one from being able to communicate well because the development of their social and/or motor skills was impaired.
Mental illnesses and disorders are also considered a disability. Among the types of disability, mental health and emotional disabilities are the ones that can manifest pretty much at any age as they can be triggered with stress or trauma. Some examples of mental disability would be anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, depression, memory loss, obsessive compulsive disorder, phobias, and many others. Generally, mental disabilities cause changes in the way of thinking of a person, which includes behavior and emotions.
Physical disabilities are types of disability that entails impairment in the physical capabilities of a person. This includes impairment in the five major sensory capabilities of a person. Examples of physical disabilities include visual impairment (blindness, cataract, etc.), hearing impairment (deafness, tinnitus, etc.), mobility impairment (cerebral palsy, polio, stroke, paralysis, etc.), chronic illnesses (cancer, asthma, diabetes, HIV, etc.), and head injuries (traumatic brain injury). Visual impairment is characterized by a visual perception of 20/60, peripheral defect, and contrast sensitivity. Hearing impairment are disabilities characterized by impairment in the perception of sound. Mobility impairments are those disabilities that hinder a person to go about and move without problems. Chronic illnesses are those types of disability that are long lasting and persistent.
And lastly, head injuries are those disabilities that are caused by damage in the brain area, usually by trauma.
The causes of physical disabilities can be divided into prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal. Prenatal causes are those that one acquires before being born such as genetic incompatibilities. Perinatal, on the other hand, are those that are acquired during birth such as obstruction of respiratory tract leading to lack of oxygen. The postnatal causes are those disabilities that are acquired after birth such as illness and infections.
Aside from these three main types of disability, one can also acquire a disability because of substance abuse and addictions. Most of these disabilities caused by these addictions are long lasting and indeed quite harsh. You see, disability is not a joke. It is something that you should learn to understand and be delicate about. Knowing the many types of disability can allow you to know how to properly interact and be sensitive to the people who have it. Therefore, make sure that you familiarize yourself with these things as much as you can.