Cancer is a genetic disease which is a result of the metamorphosis of genes.
Various types of cancer genes interfere with the standard execution of the required proteins. Some of these types of genes are known to control growth while others control the supply of blood in a cell. The following are the commonly known cancer genes include Proto oncogenes, Tumor suppressor genes, Angeogenic genes and Metastasis genes.
Proto oncogenes are types of cancer genes that support the enlargement of the cells
. They are sometime mutated at high level in tumor cells. These genes regulate the growth and differentiation of cell. Among all these genes one can be turned by mutation into a cancerous oncogene. These types of cancer genes drive the excessive division of cell. Signal molecules such as growth factors can be encoded by oncogene.
Tumor suppressor genes
Tumor suppressor genes are types of cancer genes that regulate the growth of a cell. They mislay their capability to produce protein when are inactivated due to a mutation. There can be more than three major types of Tumor suppressor genes which serve different purposes. One tells the cell to slows down and stop dividing. The other is responsible for fixing the damage when the cell divides and the third type is dictates the apoptosis of the cell. Generally excessive growths of the cells are stopped by these types of cancer genes. If there is excessive division of cell, the neighboring quitens it down by sending inhibiting factors. Inhibitory factors are known to be triggered by such factor in the rouge cell. A cell surface receptor for inhibiting factors can be knocked out by mutations. Some protein such as P53 can be disabled by other mutations.
Angiogenic genes are the types of genes that control the supply of blood in a cell. The daughter cells piles up in these types of genes when a gene becomes cancerous and begins to divide rapidly. The mass of cells expands to increase the supply of oxygen and nutrient. If the cell does not increase a number of new cells is will be matched by dying cell when it reaches a steady-state size.
The spread of cancer is controlled by these types of cancer genes. Most of the cells are restricted to a specific place within a tissue. This type of cancer genes are commonly known to cause lung cancer. The neighboring cells can help them to find the position where they should be. The cell proliferates and dies when it is detached from the tissue. But the metamorphosis can take place in a cancer cell in certain genes that allow it to spread in other parts of the body.
It is thought that the most common cancer that affects the adults is caused by at least five mutations. Many more types of cancer genes have been discovered. It is thought that about 100 cancer genes have been discovered in leukemia and lymphoma. These accounts for less than 10 percent of cancer in human being.