There are 4 different types of bone cells: lining cells, osteocytes, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts. The lining cells protect the bone while the osteoblasts keep the bones together. The osteoblasts help in the growth and development of bones. However, osteoclasts are responsible for destroying bones.
These types of bone cells are usually flat and can easily protect the bone without any obstructions to other cell functions in the body. They are usually found in adults but some can be found in the bones of children. These types of bone cells are linked to other lining cells through gap junctions and can pass cell processes through canaluculi. The cells are largely parts of osteoblasts that give protection to all the bone surfaces in the body. When the amount of calcium in the body is inadequate, it is the duty of the bone lining cells to release calcium in the bone. Apart from the above functions, the bone lining cell is equally helpful in protecting the bone against dangerous chemicals that can eat away the bone. They equally help in the maintenance of the fluids in the body.
These types of bone cells help the body to create new bones. Osteoblasts are one of the smallest types of bone cells and are made of only one nucleus. They play a very important role in the body because they help in the creation, remodeling, and repairing of bones. The osteoblast is found at the tissue cells outside the bone or at the bone marrow and periosteum. These types of bone cells build and repair new bones by building bones around itself. After the initial building process, calcium phostphate is now deposited in the bone and hardened through bicarbonate and hydroxide ions. The new bone made through this process is referred to as osteoid.
After the performance of the osteoblast, it becomes hardened and trapped inside the bone. This hardened process of the osteoblasts is what is known as osteocyte.
These are the largest of all types of bone cells. They help the body easily breakdown bones, which allows for the remodeling of bones. These types of bone cells are created by the fusion of several bone particles in the bone marrow which move through the circulatory system. They are always found in the tiny pits of bones known as resorptive pits. The resorptive process is done through the latching of bones and the activities of the osteoclasts enzyme. This process releases the enzymes that break the bone tissue for the production of phosphorus and calcium ions. This whole process might take more than a week for the completion of the process.
These are osteoblasts that have become entrapped in the new e bone matrix. When the osteonlast produces new sets of bones around itself, it becomes entrapped and cannot form new bones. This is when the osteocyte is produced. They replace these blockages and form large amounts of microfilaments. The function of the osteoblast is not yet clear and still under study. However, one basic function it performs is its remodeling function it performs on bones.