Before delving into the various types of blood diseases, it is vital to go through the physiology of blood. The circulatory system of human beings is composed of blood and the vascular system. The main function of the circulatory system is transport. Blood is made up of plasma and blood cells. Plasma is the fluid part of blood. It contains several minerals, nutrients and proteins among other substances. It accounts to more than half of blood composition. There are certain types of blood diseases that affect the blood cells.Let us take a peek at each blood cell alongside the diseases that affect them.
Erythrocytes are biconcave in shape and contain haemoglobin which is responsible for transporting oxygen around the body. Erythrocytes may develop a sickle cell shape because of an abnormal type of haemoglobin. These red blood cells experience trouble passing through the vascular system. This is among the types of blood diseases and is known as sickle cell anemia. It is a hereditary condition due to recessive genes that express themselves. Symptoms include pain and susceptibility to minor infections. Although there is no cure for it, there are better ways of managing it which have improved the life expectancy of patients.
Low count of erythrocytes or low amounts of haemoglobin leads to a condition known as anemia. There are various types of anemia. They are caused by hereditary and sometimes acquired factors. Insufficiency of haemoglobin and erythrocytes decreases the amount of oxygen in the body. Symptoms include body malaise and pale skin. Medical treatment will depend on the type of anemia and the degree of severity. In certain rare cases, a blood transfusion may have to be performed.
Leukocytes are responsible for fighting the disease causing antigens in the body. In certain cases however, these cells may turn against the cells and tissues of the patient and destroy them. This is characterized by a proliferation of the cells which in turn seek to destroy the patient’s body. The most common symptom is susceptibility to bleeding. Depending on its severity, it could be classified as acute or chronic. Fortunately, this among the types of blood diseases that are treatable. Hormone treatment and cancer treatment methods are used to treat the disorder.
Platelets are tiny pigments in blood responsible for aiding in the clotting of blood. This is a complex mechanism that requires platelets so as to function. In the absence or dearth of certain clotting factors, this mechanism is slowed down resulting in excessive bleeding or hemorrhage. This condition is known as hemophilia. It is a genetic disorder caused by certain recessive genes which express themselves when together. Although there is no cure for hemophilia, there are various methods used to manage it and improve the quality of lives of patients.
Thrombosis occurs when platelets form a plug in the vascular system which prevents the flow of blood. This normally results in a heart attack or a stroke. There are medications administered which reduce the risk of its occurrence among patients. Most of other types of blood diseases are not related to the particular cells.